The State of Assam included two valleys to be specific.The Brahmaputra and Barak Valley and it is arranged in the middle of 90° to 96° North Latitude and 24° to 28° East Longitude. The land region of Assam is 78,438.00 Sq. Km out of which 56,194.00 Sq. Km and 22,244.00 Sq. Km falls under the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley including 2 (Two) slope regions separately. The flood inclined region of the state is 31,500.00 Sq Km as surveyed by the Rashtriya Barh Ayog which is about 39.58 % of the complete land zone of Assam. This is about 9.40% of the absolute flood inclined region of the entire nation. The flood inclined zone of the nation all in all stands at about 10.2 % of the absolute region of the nation, yet the flood inclined zone of Assam is 39.58 % of the zone of the state. It connotes that the flood inclined region of Assam is multiple times the national sign of the flood inclined zone of the nation. Records show that normal yearly territory influenced by flood is 9.31 Lakh Hectares. The flood ensured region of the state is 16500.00 Sq. Km till date.
The seriousness of flood issues of the state has been additionally exasperated by the intensity of disintegration on the two banks of river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Study uncovers that a zone of 4.27 Lakh Hectare of the state has been disintegrated by the rivers since 1950, which is 7.40 % of the zone of the state. The normal yearly pace of disintegration is 8000.00 Ha. The world’s biggest river island Majuli is additionally under the hold of disintegration by river Brahmaputra and around 60 % of its unique territory has just been overwhelmed by the river.
The Brahmaputra River
The Brahmaputra is perhaps the greatest river in the world. This broad river framework depletes a special physical setting of various situations, for example, the cold and dry level in Tibet, the lofty downpour doused slants of the Himalayas, the landlocked alluvial plain in Assam and the huge deltaic plain in Bangladesh. The river is known as the Tsangpo in Tibet (China), the Siang or Dehang in Arunachal Pradesh, the Brahmaputra in Assam and the Jamuna in Bangladesh. It begins at point 30031/N scope and 80010/E longitudes in the region of Tamchok Khambala Chorten close Kubiangiri between the Kailash Range in the north and the Himalayan Range in the south. The starting point lies at a height of 5150m in an ice sheet called Chema Yungdung which misleads the south of the lake Konggyo Tso. The river navigates an all-out separation of 2906 km through the Tibetan Plateau, Himalayan Mountain, and the slopes and fields until arriving at the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra bowl covers a region of 5,80,000 sq. km. of which 1,94,413 sq. km. falls in India. In India, the bowl lies in the conditions of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Sikkim, and West Bengal.
The Brahmaputra moves down the plain of Assam east to west for a separation of 640 km up to Bangladesh outskirt. Through its course, the river gets multitudinous tributaries leaving the northern, north-eastern and the southern slope ranges. The powerful river with a well-weave system of tributaries depletes a territory of 56,480 sq. km. representing 72% of its complete land region of the state.
The Brahmaputra river of Assam frames a perplexing river framework portrayed by the most powerful and one of a kind water and dregs transport design. It is the fourth biggest river on the planet as far as normal water release at the mouth with a progression of 19,830 m3s-1. The river conveys 82% of its yearly stream during the stormy season (May to October). As respects silt transport, the river s likewise one of the main residues conveying rivers of the world. It is the second river to the Yellow River of China in the measure of silt moved per unit of waste region. The river conveys a normal yearly suspended heap of 402 million metric tons. The rough normal width of the Brahmaputra in Assam is about 5.46 kilometers however the genuine width shifts all around.
The Barak River
The Barak is the second biggest river framework in North East India just as in Assam. The Barak ascends on the southern incline of the grand Barail Range close to the fringe of Manipur and Nagaland and structures a piece of the northern limit of the Manipur State with Nagaland where it is known as Kirong. From that point, it streams a westerly and southerly course to Tipaimukh, where it forcefully goes toward the north, and for an extensive separation, frames the limit line between the Cachar area of Assam and Manipur. From there on, it turns westbound at Jirimukh and goes through the Cachar plain slowly. Close to Karimganj, it bifurcates into the northern branch of Surma and the southern part of Kushiyara. The river with an all-out length of 900 km from source to mouth depletes a territory of 52,000 sq. km. In India, the river crosses a separation of 532 km up to the Indo-Bangla outskirt.
In Assam, the Barak has an all-out length of 225 km and it depletes the southern piece of the state which incorporates the regions of Cachar, Karimganj, Hailakandi and the southern piece of the North Cachar Hills. The valley has a width of 25-30 km and it covers a zone of 6962 sq. km representing about 9% of the all-out land territory of the state. The plain, typically known as Cachar Plain is a thin, and slants delicately toward the west. Through the plain, the river streams drowsily for separation of 125 km and displays a profoundly wandering example. The significant north bank tributaries of Barak river are Jiri, Siri, Madhura, Jatinga, and Larang, while the significant south bank tributaries incorporate Sonai, Ghagra, katakhal, Dhaleswari, Singla, and Longai.